Australian News - March 20, 2018

Hyundai i30 N: Road And Track Ready

Hyundai’s stunning new i30 N is charging into Australia’s performance hatch segment, marking the start of an exciting new era for the company.

The newcomer, the latest member of the multiple award-winning i30 family, is the first model from the Hyundai ‘N’ Performance Division and arrives boasting exhilarating performance at an affordable price.

In Australia, the i30 N will be offered in a single 202kW ‘Performance’ model (equivalent to i30 N ‘Performance Package’ vehicles sold globally) with prices starting at $39,990 MLP.

While being fully equipped as a driver’s car, i30 N can be further personalised with two available option packs, the Luxury Pack ($3,000) and the Luxury Pack with Panoramic Sunroof ($5,000). Full details are given below.

“This is a car of passion, a true enthusiast’s car that will win fans for the way it looks, drives and sounds,” said HMCA Chief Executive Officer, JW Lee.

“We are extremely excited to be able to finally launch this, the first product from Hyundai’s ‘N’ performance division.

“It is a car that makes a strong case against all its rivals in sheer performance terms and its $39,990 MLP makes that case even more compelling,” Lee added.

Setting i30 N apart from its rivals is Hyundai’s willingness to embrace the car’s motorsport enthusiast origins with the standard Hyundai five-year, unlimited kilometre warranty also covering track use (for non-competition events).

The car also benefits from local suspension development and hot weather testing which was carried out on prototype cars over the past 15 months.

“Australia’s extreme climate, unique roads and challenging driving conditions became a focal point of global pre-production testing,” said Andrew Tuitahi, Hyundai Motor Company Australia’s Senior Product Planning Manager.

“Hot weather durability testing was carried out in Australia over the summer of 2016-17 as part of i30 N’s global development programme, with a number of mechanical and electronic systems verified. This is a car that is very familiar with our country already.”

Standard i30 N features include an active variable exhaust system, electronically-controlled adaptive suspension, and an electro-mechanical limited-slip differential. It also has a launch control function. Overboost lifts torque output to 378Nm at full throttle for up to 18 seconds.

Styling enhancements include 19” alloy wheels fitted with specially developed Pirelli P-Zero HN tyres and an aerodynamically-functional full body kit.

The sports theme is carried over to the interior, which includes sports front seats, a leather-appointed steering wheel, alloy sports pedals, N race computer and instrument panel-mounted shift lights.

i30 N: In Detail


The i30 N is Hyundai Motor’s first high-performance car under the N line up. Built on the New Generation i30 platform, the i30 N has been developed from the ground up to deliver maximum driving pleasure in everyday life on the road, as well as on the track. It was born at Hyundai Motor Company’s global R&D Centre in Namyang, Korea and honed on “The Green Hell”, Germany’s infamous Nürburgring Nordschliefe, one of the world’s most challenging race circuits and home to Hyundai’s Test Centre.

This car is Hyundai’s answer to customers demanding uncompromising innovation and technology-driven performance in an affordable daily driver that can easily turn its hand to high performance road driving and a hard day at the race track.

Honed for Cornering
The i30 N loves corners. Its performance-tuned independent suspension, with MacPherson struts up front and a multi-link rear, underscores its abilities.

New i30 N uses bespoke, high-performance, low-profile (235/35) 19-inch Pirelli P-Zero HN tyres for maximum cornering grip and a rack-mounted, motor-driven power steering unit for enhanced driver feel and feedback (the standard i30 has a column-mounted unit).

The i30 N sits 8mm lower than the car on which it is based and has Electronically Controlled Suspension (ECS) that dynamically, and independently, manages front and rear body-roll, as well as pitch and dive, to enhance vehicle response and deliver the best possible cornering performance. Suspension can be adjusted by the driver using the 8-inch touchscreen, with settings across a wide range, from comfort-oriented daily driving to high-intensity track work.

New i30 N’s Electronically controlled mechanical Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD) not only ensures maximum power is delivered to the road but also increases cornering speeds by up to five percent.

The new i30 N also features an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system with optional ‘Sport’ and ‘Sport+’ modes. Sport mode allows drivers to explore their abilities with a wider safety net, while Sport+ deactivates ESC altogether and allows for left foot braking.

Everyday Sports Car
The i30 N is an everyday sports car suitable for comfortable commuting on weekdays and track day performances at the weekend.

By offering a great variety of customisation options, the i30 N is a well-balanced hatchback, offering performance and practicality. There are five drive modes, including Eco, Normal, Sport, N and N Custom settings, which can be selected by using two dedicated buttons on the steering wheel.

The different modes change the character of the car, adjusting the high-performance parameters of the engine, the dampers, Electronic Stability Control (ESC), Electronic Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD), exhaust sound, steering feel and rev-matching.

The driver can use the rev-matching button on the steering wheel to turn rev-matching on or off, a function which automatically blips the throttle when shifting from a higher to a lower gear, matching engine speed to road speed, and helping to stabilise the car under braking, while the car’s Launch Control helps to launch the car as easily as possible by controlling engine speed and increasing boost pressure prior to launch.

The N car’s powerful 2.0-litre turbocharged four-cylinder engine delivers 202kW at 6,000rpm and 353Nm from 1,450rpm to 4,700rpm.

It also has a turbocharger overboost function, lifting maximum torque to 378Nm from 1,750rpm to 4,200rpm for up to 18 seconds. The powerplant offers direct response with a linear power delivery.

Drive is via the front wheels through a six-speed manual transmission which has been strengthened and fitted with carbon fibre synchromesh rings to reduce shift effort and make gear changes smoother and faster.

Track Ready: No Options Required
Durability and race track performance were key elements in i30 N’s development, with cars undergoing over 10,000 kilometres of testing on the Nürburgring Nordschliefe race circuit. i30 Ns have also twice competed in the grueling ADAC 24-hour, one of the world’s toughest endurance races, on the famous German circuit.

The brakes have been developed to withstand plenty of punishment, with an extra cooling function through the front bumper air intakes. The car features a strong clutch, while the precise six-speed manual transmission has short travel to enhance fast shifting. The already-stiff body has been made even more rigid with additional chassis bracing and a removable body-stiffening bar which fits discreetly behind the rear seats.

Anyone taking an i30 N out for the day can have full confidence in the car’s performance and endurance.


To provide Australian customers with the best possible product, the i30 N has had its chassis tuned to suit our challenging local conditions.

“Australia’s pot-holed and speed hump-riddled urban centres, along with our constantly bumpy and patchy mountain roads, proved challenging during our pre-production testing,” said Andrew Tuitahi, HMCA’s Senior Product Planning Manager and lead test driver.

“Our counterparts in Korea and Germany endowed i30 N with incredible dynamic ability and a playful character that very clearly positioned it as a class-leading hot hatch. We fully supported the plan to have one global state of tune, a tune that was forged on the Nürburgring Nordschliefe and surrounding roads, but Australia’s unique conditions forced us to reconsider that position.

“The goal was to introduce a little more suppleness into the way the car moves, to better cope with jagged pot-holes, square edges, and continuous rolling bumps, while retaining the car’s core character,” said Tuitahi. “It is softer than the European tune, has a little more body roll, but maintains absolute control in all conditions.

“Across three separate tuning sessions – two based out of our Nürburgring Technical Centre, and one here in Australia – we designed, built and tested eleven different front dampers and nine rear dampers. They’re also complemented by a bespoke Australian logic tune for the electronic control.”

“The suspension setup for Australian-delivered i30 Ns has been verified on the Green Hell and approved.”

“We’re very proud of the final product. It is a testament to the abilities of our global engineering teams and proves that the fun nature of i30 N has been engineered into the car from the ground up,” Tuitahi said.


The i30 N is fully focused on performance and sports a number of unique aerodynamic design elements, including aggressively-styled front and rear bumpers, side skirts and a large rear spoiler, all working in harmony with the timeless design of the new PD i30.

With form following function, N designers worked closely with aerodynamic specialists to find the right balance between downforce, drag and cooling.

The lowered ride height – 8mm lower than the standard i30 – and new aerodynamic features combine to give i30 N a strong stance and sporty silhouette, at the same time enhancing on-road balance and high performance race track capabilities.

Exterior Design
The i30 N features larger wheel arch openings to accommodate the new 19-inch alloy wheels and low-profile sports tyres.

The ‘N’ logo is engraved in each wheel rim and is also present on the striking red brake calipers that clamp the big, ventilated brake rotors – 345mm diameter front, 314mm diameter rear – as well as on the Cascading Grille and side skirts.

At the front, the i30 N’s aggressive appearance is enhanced by black headlamp bezels. Air inlets are fitted on either side of the bumper to not only enhance brake cooling and aid aerodynamics but also as the focal point for the horizontal LED daytime running lights positioned above.

Additional air curtains are mounted behind the Cascading Grille and add to the car’s performance by enhancing airflow and reducing wind turbulence in the wheel housings, while increasing engine cooling at the same time.

The front splitter and rear spoiler work to create performance-enhancing downforce while giving excellent aero balance. Dual exhaust openings also underline the car’s eye-catching looks.

At the rear, the triangular high-mounted brake light completes the car’s signature look.

Interior Design
The interior is focused on connecting the driver with the car at all touch points.

The exclusive “N” steering wheel ensures that the driver is in control of all performance functions directly by hand. On the left side of the steering wheel, drivers can use a blue switch to select three standard drive modes: Normal, Sport and Eco. On the right, the driver uses the blue chequered flag N button for N-mode or N Custom.

For better engine control during gear shifting, drivers can activate the rev-matching control system by using the dedicated ‘REV’ button on the right steering wheel spoke above the N button.

The steering wheel design incorporates unique ‘N’ blue stitching and features an ‘N’ logo at the base of its vertical spoke. The gearshift boot also features unique blue stitching and the ball-shaped shift knob bears the ‘N’ badge.

The electronic instrument cluster is specifically designed for driving enthusiasts. The gear shift timing lights are positioned atop the instrument cluster, indicating when to shift gears for optimal driving performance. The redline of the variable LED rev-counter varies with the engine’s oil temperature.

The i30 N also features heavily bolstered, cloth-upholstered sports seats featuring blue stitching and the ‘N’ logo stamped on the back rest. Seats featuring suede inserts and leather bolsters are available with the optional Luxury pack.

N colour range
Hyundai’s i30 N comes in a range of six exterior colours, headlined by Performance Blue, which became part of Hyundai’s ‘N’ DNA when it was introduced to the World Rally Championship team’s i20 WRC cars in 2014.

Other colours available are: Clean Slate, Polar White, Micron Grey, Phantom Black and Engine Red. Colour enhancements include black side sills and gloss black exterior mirror shells.

Inside, high-quality materials and inserts painted in the N Dark Metal finish underline the car’s elegant character and amplify its motorsport character.


When it comes to sharp performance and driving excitement, the i30 N is all about precision, safety, control and durability. Here are its key features:

Motor-Driven Power Steering system
The i30 N brings a new level of precision to its steering with a Rack-mounted Motor-Driven Power Steering System (R-MDPS) which gives the driver extra feel for the road and makes it instantly responsive at all speeds.

Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
The Electronic Stability Control System progressively stabilises the car during cornering manoeuvres and can be switched off completely to allow full exploitation of the chassis.

Launch Control
The i30 N’s Launch Control System manages engine torque, speed and turbo boost for standing start acceleration. Whilst in N Drive mode, with the ESC in Sport mode, the clutch disengaged and first gear selected, releasing the clutch on full throttle within five seconds launches the car cleanly and quickly.

Rev Matching
Rev Matching automatically adjusts engine speed and ‘blips’ the throttle when the driver downshifts. Different drive modes alter the aggression of the downshift ‘blips’ and this function can be altered independently in N Custom mode. The ‘REV’ button is easily accessible on the right side of the steering wheel to switch this function off and on as required.

Electronically Controlled Suspension (ECS)
The Electronically Controlled Suspension allows the suspension to be adjusted by the driver to suit different driving conditions or handling preferences.
It hones the suspension’s damping force, ride, handling and vehicle stability using a solenoid valve to guarantee immediate and precise damper control, with damping force adjusted up to 100 times a second.
Changing suspension modes alters the character and intent of the car through three distinct and very different phases: Normal, Sport and N. The two harder settings give a racier, more aggressive feel, with N mode especially suited to fast, smooth race tracks.

Electro-Mechanical Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD)
The i30 N’s strong cornering ability is achieved using new performance features including an Electronically-Controlled Mechanical Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD).

The E-LSD allows the driven wheels to turn at different speeds by applying varying torque loads to each one depending on the load transfer from the inner to the outer front wheel.

Wheel slip in damp or slippery conditions is reduced, and understeer while cornering is minimised. E-LSD also increases the car’s maximum cornering speed by up to five percent.

Electronic Sound Generator (ESG)
To give i30 N’s occupants a true, high-performance experience, a sporty engine sound is produced by the Electronic Sound Generator, which is mounted in the bodywork at the base of the windscreen to add an extra acoustic element. No sound enhancement is emitted by the audio speakers.

Active Variable Exhaust System
Drivers are able to select different exhaust sounds of varying intensity and drama by actively controlling the exhaust valve.
The sound varies according to the size of the valve opening and the twin-outlet active exhaust has several settings, allowing the noise to be increased incrementally from ‘normal’ to ‘impressively powerful’ to ‘hard-core’, with race track- inspired ‘crackle and pop’ in the ‘Sport+’ setting.

N Driving Mode System
State-of-the-art high performance technologies, which can be chosen individually by the driver, are the key features of Hyundai’s first ‘N’ model and combine to extract the car’s full handling potential, at the same time giving a smooth, controlled ride.
The level of driver adjustability for chassis and drivetrain betters that seen in some supercars. This breadth of character lies at the core of the N car experience.

Drivers can choose between five individual driving modes – Eco, Normal, Sport, N and N Custom – all activated using two dedicated steering wheel-mounted buttons.

The different modes change the car’s character by adjusting the car’s damper, Electronic Stability Control, Electronic Limited Slip Differential, engine sound, engine response, steering and Rev Match parameters.

In N Custom mode, drivers can select from Eco, Normal, Sport and Sport+ settings for each high-performance element to set the car up for driver preferences and road conditions.

For example, for spirited driving on a favourite twisty road, the driver may prefer lighter ‘normal’ steering, and the softest possible suspension to absorb bumps, but combine this with full sharpness from the engine, aggressive diff and rev match settings and full ‘noise’ from the exhaust.

This kind of personally-tuned setting is easily programmable in N Custom mode, avoiding the pitfall of the car being ‘locked in’ to certain modes that are not customisable.

In all, N Custom mode allows 1,944 different settings, outlined below:

Components Drive Mode Button N Button
Eco Normal Sport N Mode N Custom
Powertrain Settings Engine response ECO NORMAL SPORT SPORT+ NORMAL / SPORT / SPORT+
Electro-Mechanical Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD) NORMAL NORMAL SPORT SPORT NORMAL / SPORT
Active Variable Exhaust sound ECO NORMAL SPORT SPORT+
(with crackle)
Chassis Settings Electronic Controlled Suspension (ECS) NORMAL NORMAL SPORT SPORT+ NORMAL / SPORT / SPORT+


The i30 N is powered by a 2.0-litre, turbocharged, four-cylinder engine with double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder and continuously variable valve control.

The engine develops 202kW and 353Nm (378Nm with overboost). Maximum speed is 250km/h and i30 N accelerates from 0 to 100km/h in 6.2 seconds.

The six-speed manual transmission is mated to the Electro-Mechanical Limited Slip Differential (E-LSD), driving through the front wheels.

The i30 N comes exclusively with 19-inch Pirelli P-Zero high-performance Hyundai N tyres, distinctive red N brake calipers and large brake discs (345mm front and 314mm rear).


The i30 N’s driving modes can be displayed on the 8-inch touchscreen with information on power output, torque and turbo boost. It also has built in lap time, G-force and acceleration timer functions.

The specific N Mode screen menu has customisable settings for the engine, suspension, steering, differential, transmission, Rev Matching, exhaust sound and stability control.

In addition to the standard factory Satellite Navigation system, the i30 N has both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto compatibility, as well as a wireless inductive charging pad for mobile phones (Qi standard) on the Luxury Pack option.


i30 N features the latest active safety systems, including:

  • Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB): Operates in three stages using camera sensors. The first stage is a visual and audible driver warning. The second stage controls braking in accordance with the collision danger and the third stage applies maximum braking force to avoid a collision or minimise damage if a collision is unavoidable. (Note: pedestrian recognition is not currently available for i30 N)
  • Driver Attention Alert (DAA): Monitors driving patterns and detects reckless or fatigued driving to prevent potential accidents.
  • Lane Keeping Assist System (LKAS): Senses the car’s position and alerts drivers to movements toward the lane edges at speeds above 60km/h with audible and visual warnings given before initiating steering corrections to guide the car


i30 N is Hyundai Motor’s first high-performance car to use the ‘N’ name, which stands for both Namyang – the company’s Global R&D Centre in Korea where the idea was born – and the Nurburgring, home of Hyundai’s European Test Centre.

The close connection between these two distant locations created the foundation for ‘N’, with the single goal to deliver cars with pure driving enjoyment.

Nürburgring Test Centre
The Nürburgring Nordschliefe circuit, home to Hyundai Motor Company’s Nurburgring Test Centre, is 21 kilometres long and has 73 corners.

The Hyundai test centre occupies 3,600 square metres and is operated by Hyundai Motor Europe to run accelerated durability testing at the Green Hell. Each car competes between 420 and 480 laps, simulating up to 180,000 kilometres of hard driving in just four weeks.

Namyang R&D Centre
Opened in 1995, the Namyang R&D facility – i30 N’s birth place – covers 3.3 million square metres of land and employs 13,000 researchers. It has design and engineering centres, an aero-acoustic wind tunnel and an environmental research centre. Powertrain and performance testing is also done there.

Namyang has 70 kilometres of test roads including a Belgian cobble-stone paved section and a 4.5-kilometre high speed track.

European production for i30 N
The new i30 N is built at Hyundai Motor Manufacturing in Nosovice, Czech Republic. The plant opened in 2008, has an annual production capacity of 350,000 cars and meets the highest quality standards.

Its 3.3-kilometre open test track means every vehicle is tested for dynamic properties, noise and functions as soon as it leaves the production line. Vehicles also get a full underbody check for correct assembly.

i30 N: Pricing & Aftersales

Engine Transmission i30 N
2.0L Turbo-GDi 6 speed manual $39,990
Option Pricing
Metallic / Mica Paint $495
Luxury Pack $3,000
Luxury Pack with Panoramic Sunroof $5,000

Note: All prices are Manufacturer’s List Price. Price excludes dealer delivery and on road costs

Lifetime Service Plan
The recommended service intervals are 12 months / 10,000 kilometres

Standard Hyundai five-year, unlimited kilometre warranty, which also covers race track use for non-competition events, including the fitment of track orientated tyres.

Hyundai iCare
With Hyundai iCare the joy of buying a Hyundai will stretch well beyond the showroom. This leading customer care program offers a comprehensive suite of owner benefits including; Lifetime Service Plan, 5 Year Unlimited Km Warranty, complimentary Roadside Assist for 12 months on new vehicles 1,500km complimentary first service, a dedicated Customer Care Centre, myHyundai – exclusive owner website and customer events. When servicing with Hyundai, customers will also receive a 10 Year Sat Nav Update Plan, a Roadside Support Plan for up to 10 years and more. Visit for full details.

i30 N: Specification Overview

i30 N Performance – Key Specifications
N performance features SmartSense™ including;
– Active variable exhaust – Autonomous Emergency Braking
– Electronic Controlled Suspension – Driver Attention Alert
– Electronic sound generator – Forward Collision Warning
– Electro-mechanical LSD – Lane Keeping Assist System
– Launch control 7 airbags
– N Drive Mode System Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
– N race computer Vehicle Stability Management (VSM)
– Overboost function Hill-start Assist Control (HAC)
– Performance brake package Auto dusk sensing headlights
– Rear stiffness bar Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
– Rev matching function Rear park assist system
N exterior styling enhancements Rear view camera
– 19” alloy wheels LED daytime running lights (DRL)
– Pirelli P-Zero HN tyres LED headlights and front indicators
– Front & rear bumpers LED side repeaters in mirrors
– Front grille LED tail lights
– Gloss black exterior mirrors Temporary space saver spare wheel
– Headlights 8” satellite navigation system
– Rear spoiler with brake light DAB+ digital radio
– Side skirts Apple CarPlay compatibility
N sports interior Android Auto compatibility
– Alloy sports pedals Bluetooth connectivity
– Black headlining Cruise control
– N Dark Metal painted trim inserts Dual zone climate control
– Performance Blue stitching Driver’s seat cushion extension
– Sports front seats Driver’s seat 4-way power lumbar
– Leather appointed steering wheel Height adjustable front seats
– 4.2” TFT colour Supervision cluster Tilt & telescopic steering column
Front & rear power windows; Luggage power outlet
– One touch auto up/down windows Rear seat centre fold-down armrest
Options Packs
Luxury Pack
– Front park assist system – Front passenger seat cushion extension
– LED courtesy & puddle lights – Power front seats – 12-way
– Power folding exterior mirrors – Electro-chromatic interior mirror
– Rain sensing wipers – Heated front seats/steering wheel
– Solar control windscreen glass – Luggage net
– Driver’s seat memory system – Smart key & push button start
– Sport front seats with suede inserts and leather bolsters* – Wireless charging pad (Qi)
– Rear privacy glass
Luxury Pack with Panoramic Sunroof
– All Luxury Pack features – Panoramic glass sunroof

* Finishes specified as leather may contain elements of genuine leather, polyurethane leather (leather substitute) or man-made materials, or a combination thereof.

i30 N: Technical Specifications

Engine 2.0 T-GDi
Engine location Transverse front mounted driving front wheels
Engine family Theta-II
Configuration 4 in-line
Cylinder capacity 2.0 litres (1,998 cc)
Number of cylinders 16 Valve, Double Overhead Cam (DOHC),
Dual Continuously Variable Valve Timing (D-CVVT)
Intake system Twin-scroll turbocharger
Maximum power 202 kW @ 6,000 RPM
Maximum torque 353 Nm @ 1,450 – 4,700 RPM
Overboost: 378 Nm @ 1,750 – 4,200 RPM
Fuel system T-GDi (Turbo Gasoline Direct Injection)
Fuel type Minimum 95 RON (PULP), E10 compatible
Emissions standard Euro 5
Bore x stroke 86.0 mm x 86.0 mm
Compression ratio 9.5:1
Manual 6 speed
Gear ratio: 1st 3.083
Gear ratio: 2nd 1.931
Gear ratio: 3rd 1.696
Gear ratio: 4th 1.276
Gear ratio: 5th 1.027
Gear ratio: 6th 0.854
Gear ratio: Reverse 3.588
Final Drive 4.333 (1st, 2nd, Reverse), 3.250 (3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th)
Front Electronically controlled mechanical Limited Slip Differential
(E-LSD) with 2 modes (Normal, Sport)
Front Independent McPherson Strut
Rear Independent Multi-Link
Type Rack mounted Motor Driven Power Steering (R-MDPS),
rack & pinion
Turning diameter 11.6m
Steering lock-to-lock 2.57
Modes Normal, Sport, Sport+
Front Disc 345mm x 30mm (ventilated)
Rear Disc 314mm x 20mm (ventilated)
Type Dual-diagonal, split circuit, power assisted with Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD) and Brake Assist System (BAS)
Wheels and Tyres  
Wheel type Alloy
Wheel dimensions 19 x 8.0J +55
Tyre dimensions 235/35R19 91Y
Tyre brand Pirelli P-Zero HN
Spare wheel type Temporary space saver
Kerb weight 1,429 kg – 1,509 kg
Exterior Dimensions (mm)
Length 4335 mm
Width 1795 mm
Height 1447 mm
Wheelbase 2650 mm
Wheel track – front  / rear 1556 mm / 1564 mm
Minimum ground clearance
(based on kerb weight)
132 mm
Interior Dimensions (mm)
Head room front / rear 994 mm / 977 mm
Leg room front / rear 1073 mm / 883 mm
Shoulder room front / rear 1427 mm / 1406 mm
Cargo area – VDA (min / max) 381 L / 1287 L
Fuel consumption*  
Combined (L/100km) 8.0
Urban (L/100km) 10.6
Extra Urban (L/100km) 6.4
CO2 – combined (g/km) 186
Fuel tank volume 50 L

*Source: Australian Design Rule 81/02 static laboratory combined average city and highway cycle test. Real world fuel consumption will vary depending on a combination of driving habits, the condition of the vehicle, and other factors such as road, traffic